An analysis of the main religions in china buddhism taoism islam and christianity
Chinese folk religion
In total there were 23 participants, including 8 graduate students. They maintain that notions of Yin-Yang and Qi have spiritual origins in that they are related to heaven, earth, and life. Moreover, cross-cultural psychology of religion does not much allow for surprises. As in the West, students tend to form religious belief when encountering crises, when unable to trust the surrounding world, or when seeking restored physical and mental health. In the process of replicating the religion and health findings in the west, there is research in Chinese psychology of religion which breaks new ground in China and perhaps has implications for the Western research on religion and trauma. There remains some confusion regarding the appropriateness of qualitative methods of collecting data given the high value placed on empirical research. The first four are translated and in the process of being published. With more than a billion people, 56 nationalities, phoenix like economic growth, and the largest human migration in human history from the countryside to the expanding cities, no one person can grasp the nature of how and why people are turning to a multitude of religious and spiritual beliefs and practices. First, during the Cultural Revolution, psychology as a discipline was suspect. Chinese folk religions have no rigid organizational structure, blend practices from Buddhism and Daoism, and are manifest in the worship of ancestors, spirits, or other local deities. This line of thought would have influenced all Chinese individual and collective-political mystical theories and practices thereafter. Confucianism was harshly suppressed, with the burning of Confucian classics and killing of scholars who espoused the Confucian cause.
In the academy, psychology does not hold its own as a science in comparison with the physical sciences. Besides, this religion is practiced by the inhabitants of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and some regions of Gansu and Qinghai provinces.
A report [PDF] from ChinaAid, a Texas-based Christian nongovernmental organization, said that religious persecution, primarily against Christians, was on the rise.
Central to the argument of their paper is that given the complexity and diversity of converting for the authors a more dynamic term than conversion processes in China, psychologists of religion must work collaboratively.
The basis of the doctrine was conservation of ancient traditions and following the commands of Heaven, which represented the emperor. Various Chinese leaders have called for those working with the traumatized to consider the localities and heritage of China in the construction of psychotherapy for Chinese rather than the wholesale importation of Western models.
It does so by creating elaborate death rituals around notifying family and friends, preparing the corpse, assuming mourning status, offerings, hiring ritual specialists, placing the body in the coffin, processing after the coffin, the burial, the funeral feast, eliminating pollution and various post burial tasks.
After all it is a scientific canon that the method of the scientist should be compatible with the object of study. Chen believes that the goal of a harmonious society must shape the development of a psychology of religion.
China religion percentage
After , they swept the country. Following the lead of the well-known Chinese scholar, Mou Mou and Zhang , she believes that original and foreign religions can exist peacefully side-by-side. Google Scholar Bond, M. With regard to folk religions of the lower social classes, their implicit psychology of religion was utilitarian in nature; religion was sought for worldly benefits and spiritual solace. Instrumentalism assumes that the critical question is how efficient means are in terms of achieving a particular end, e. He points out that spirituality in China may be different from the West in that in China, the spiritual is part of the personality of all people including non-traditional religious and common people that are open to the transcendent. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Although they were suspended after , it spread fast in recent years. Google Scholar Pargament, K. In the beginning of a new year, some people will watch some fortune telling programs to see whether they can succeed in the next year and learn how to avoid back luck.
There has been little dialogue between Chinese psychologists of religion, other Chinese psychologists with similar interests, and Western psychologists of religion. She points out that Christianity, in comparison with Buddhism and Islam, has remained more distant from traditional ideologies and subcultures in China.
based on 83 review