Broken window theory of deviance
Some campaigns such as Black Lives Matter have called for an end to broken windows policing. We compare interventions inspired by these two theories to test how well they improve perceived safety and make recommendations about how these criminology theories should inform environmental psychology and environmental design, and vice versa.
We discuss the results and make design recommendations for urban planners and landscape designers seeking to transform urban alleys in high-density cities into safe and vital spaces. First, Cohen and Felson didn't clarify what kinds of routine activities decrease the likelihood of crime, nor the social conditions at specific urban spaces that might lead to a higher risk of crime Tittle, In a central urban area in Hong Kong, local media reported 60 serious crimes in urban alleys from January to September Many of the acts that are considered legal but "disorderly" are often targeted in public settings and are not targeted when they are conducted in private.
Bratton also revived the New York City Cabaret Lawa previously dormant Prohibition era ban on dancing in unlicensed establishments. Only the link between disorder and robbery remained.
Broken window theory simplified
Only the link between disorder and robbery remained. Disorder is the major cause of people's fear of an environment, more than actual crime rates or victimization risks Skogan, ; Hinkle and Yang, In particular, Bratton directed the police to more strictly enforce laws against subway fare evasion, public drinking , public urination , and graffiti. In each experiment, there was a "disorder" condition in which violations of social norms as prescribed by signage or national custom, such as graffiti and littering, were clearly visible as well as a control condition where no violations of norms had taken place. Urban alleys are often underutilized, underdeveloped, and deteriorating spaces in cities Seymour et al. Plank and colleagues from Johns Hopkins University conducted a correlational study to determine the degree to which the physical appearance of the school and classroom setting influence student behavior, particularly in respect to the variables concerned in their study: fear, social disorder, and collective efficacy. Urban alleys have rarely been examined in empirical studies in the field of environmental design, but previous studies in other urban contexts suggest that environmental interventions can improve the safety of public places either perceived or actual safety Yang et al. The Broken Windows Theory has long been the dominant paradigm to explore the perceived safety of an environment. Sampson and Stephen Raudenbush of Harvard University , see the application of the broken windows theory in policing as a war against the poor, as opposed to a war against more serious crimes. Others pressed forward with new, more sophisticated studies of the relationship between disorder and crime. The most prominent among them concluded that the relationship between disorder and serious crime is modest, and even that relationship is largely an artifact of more fundamental social forces.
Disorder in urban alleys sends the message that nobody cares for the place, which might make people feel threatened, while reducing the perceived cost of committing a crime for potential offenders Zimbardo, ; Kotabe, Thus, they conclude that police can successfully reduce disorder and non-disorder crime through disorder policing efforts, but the types of strategies matter.
He and others were convinced that the aggressive order-maintenance practices of the New York City Police Department were responsible for the dramatic decrease in crime rates within the city during the s. The line between crime and disorder is often blurred, with some experts considering such acts as prostitution and drug dealing as disorder while many others classify them as crimes.
based on 44 review