Geriatric pain management nursing implications
No age-associated changes were observed for heat pain threshold Lautenbacher et al. Effectiveness of acute postoperative pain management: 1. Simpler tools such as the verbal rating scale, which classifies pain as mild, moderate or severe, also are commonly used. Pharmacodynamic changes In the elderly, the decline in drug sensitivity is associated strongly with age-related decline in CNS function Kaye et al.
Some older adults may avoid pain medication because of constipation and other adverse effects.
Pain management nursing interventions
Since patients may experience pain in areas other than the surgical site, location of pain using a body drawing or verbal report provides useful information. Kwekkeboom K. Recent data suggest 80 percent of patients experience pain postoperatively 2 with between 11 and 20 percent experiencing severe pain. Pain is often classified as acute or chronic. Comorbidity represents an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of pain. Clinicians need to be educated about the effective methods of preventing respiratory depression and appropriate use of naloxone if respiratory depression does occur. Ann Intern Med. A year review of quality improvement monitoring in pain management: Recommendations for standardized outcomes measures. Protect skin when applying heat or cold. The endocrine system reacts by releasing an excessive amount of hormones, ultimately resulting in carbohydrate, protein, and fat catabolism destruction ; poor glucose use; and other harmful effects. While these nonverbal methods of assessment provide useful information, self-report of pain is the most accurate.
Pain threshold Several studies have focused on the relationship between aging and pain threshold. Safety includes the use of appropriate tools for assessing pain in cognitively intact adults and cognitively impaired adults.
McCaffery M. Drugs that undergo phase I metabolism have reduced elimination in the elderly.
based on 48 review