Tolerance for gang activities varies by community Curry and Spergel, ; Horowitz, A continuum of gender-responsive programs and practices are necessary to ensure that girls receive the attention and treatment they need.
What accounts for the increase in risk from having a young mother? According to three major large-scale, long-term studies: 1 developmental risks have additive negative effects on child outcomes, 2 most infants with perinatal complications develop into normally functioning children, and 3 children with long-term negative outcomes who suffered perinatal complications more often than not came from socially disadvantaged backgrounds Brennan and Mednick, ; Broman et al.
Victims of childhood abuse and neglect are also at higher risk than other children of being arrested for a violent crime as a juvenile Maxfield and Widom, Find in a Library You have clicked.
Adolescents may be more influenced by what they think their peers are doing than by what they actually are doing Radecki and Jaccard, Community-based statistics show high correlations among joblessness, household disruption, housing density, infant deaths, poverty, and crime Sampson, Parents seem to have more influence on the use of drugs among working-class than among middle-class families, and among blacks more than whites Biddle et al.