Several different kinds of rites affect organizational culture: Rites of passage: employees move into new roles Rites of degradation: employees have power taken away from them Rites of enhancement: public recognition for an employee's accomplishments Rites of renewal: improve existing social structures Rites of conflict reduction: resolve arguments between certain members or groups Rites of integration: reawaken feelings of membership in the organization Reflexive comments are explanations, justifications, and criticisms of our own actions.
Some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. However, the relationship between leadership and culture is not one-sided. Culture can be guided by managing the ingredients.
While the above definitions of culture express how the construct plays out in the workplace, other definitions stress employee behavioral components, and how organizational culture directly influences the behaviors of employees within an organization.
For example, someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency. Deal and Kennedy[ edit ] Deal and Kennedy  defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here.
O'Reilly, Chatman, and Caldwell[ edit ] Two common models and their associated measurement tools have been developed by O'Reilly et al. Each organization has its own unique culture and most often, when brought together, these cultures clash. The organization turns into a sort of clan.